- Siberia, vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan, constituting all of northern Asia. Siberia extends from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean the east ond southward from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and the borders of Mongolia and China.
- Most of Russia is in Siberia At around 13 million sq km (5.1 million square miles), Siberia takes up three-quarters of all Russian territory and almost 10% of Earth’s land surface. However, when it comes to population del sity, iberia is one of the least populated areas on Earth, tween 7 and 8 inhabitants per square mile.
Siberia- boon for Russia :
- Rich in minerals and metals, Siberia already is home to producers of diamonds, nickel, lead, gypsum, silver, gas and zinc, and in April Russia announced about the investment of billions of dollars to it.
- Medvedev instructed the government to develop a Program for the development of the Far East” with a total value of $16 billion for the development of Siberia and adjacent regions by 2018, saying that for Russia it is the highest priority.
- Russia has two main coal-handling port areas: 1.Western (Ust-Luga and Murmansk) 2• Eastern (Vanino and Vostochny).
- Historically the western ports are used for coal expor to Northern and Western Europe, while the eastern port. ved Asia Pacific (I.e., China) and the countries in Indian Ocean.
- After the War there was a slight increase in Russian exports from the ports of Venino and Volstochny. These ports are used for coal trade to eastern countries including China and India, therefore, the increase in export volume suggest that Russia’s coal trade with China and India remains stable.
Siberia is home to World’s largest Railway Line
- The Trans-Siberian Railway Network, which connects Moscow and Vladivostok, is 5,771 miles (9,288.2 kilometres) in length. The railway is famous for crossing eight time zones and includes Lake Baikal, birch and pine forests, and the Ural mountains.
Over 70% of Russia’s oil and gas come from Siberia
- The majority of Russian crude oil and natural gas comes from Western Siberia, where natural reserves spread over more than 2 million sq/km. Russia is one of the world’s largest natural gas exporters because of its Siberian territories.
Transmission of gas to China
- Alexey Miller, chairman of the Gazprom Management Committee, said the resource base of the Yamal Peninsula will be used for gas supplies to Asian and European markets, with the Power of Siberia 2 potentially transporting up to 50 Billion cubic metre per year of natural gas to China across Mongolia.
- Currently, China imports the bulk of mineral resources from Australia, Brazil and South Africa. But the Siberian mineral reserves are much closer. Cargo transportation from Brazil to Shanghai by sea takes about 35 days, from South Africa – 20 days, from Australia, about fourteen, while from the Vanino seaport in Siberia – only 4 days.
- Siberia has the world’s largest forests. Most timber harvesting in Siberia takes place in the central part, especially in Krasnoyarsky Kray near the Trans-Siberian Railroad and along the Yenisei. Much of this wood is consumed domestically, but increasing large quantities are exported to China and Japan.
- The Sea of Okhotsk is one of the two or three richest fisheries in the world owing to its cold currents and very large tidal ranges, and the Siberia produces over 10% of world’s annual fish catch, although fishing has declined somewhat, since the collapse of USSR.
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